Copyright Information

Copyright is a form of protection provided by the laws of the United States (Title 17, U.S. Code) to the authors of “original works of authorship”, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. It is illegal for anyone to violate any of the rights of the owner of the copyright. A hard copy of “permission to copy” with a signature will be required on all copyrighted material.

Copyright and Classroom Use (Multiple Copies):

Copies of a copyrighted work have more potential to harm the market for a given work than a single teacher use or a performance. However, it is important to distinguish between making copies for classroom use and performance. Performance or display of a copyrighted work in a classroom is permitted under 17 USC 110(1). The Guidelines published by the Copyright Office specify permitted situations to make copies for classroom use, and exceptions to these permitted situations. The Guidelines for multiple copies are as follows:

Multiple copies (not to exceed in any event more than one copy per pupil in a course) may be made by or for the teacher giving the course for classroom use or discussion; provided that:

  1. The copying meets the tests of brevity and spontaneity as defined below; and,
  2. Meets the cumulative effect test as defined below; and,
  3. Each copy includes a notice of copyright



1. Poetry

a. a complete poem if less that 250 words and if printed on not more than two pages; or
b. from a longer poem, an excerpt of not more than 250 words.

2. Prose

a. Either a complete article, story or essay of less than 2,500 words; or
b. an excerpt from any prose work of not more than 1,000 words or 10% of the work, whichever is less, but in any event a minimum of 500 words.

(Each of the numerical limits stated in a. and b. above may be expanded to permit the completion of an unfinished line of a poem or of an unfinished prose paragraph.)

3. Illustration

One chart, graph, diagram, drawing, cartoon, or picture per book or per periodical issue.

4 "Special" works

Certain works in poetry, prose, or in "poetic prose" which often combine language with illustration and which are intended sometimes for children and at other times for a more general audience fall short of 2,500 words in their entirety. Paragraph b. above notwithstanding, such "special works" may not be reproduced in their entirety; however, an excerpt comprising not more than two of the published pages of such special work and containing not more than 10% of the words found in the text thereof may be reproduced.


a. The copying is at the instance and inspiration of the individual teacher; and
b. the inspiration and decision to use the work and the moment of its use for maximum teaching effectiveness are so close in time that it would be unreasonable to expect a timely reply to a request for permission.

Cumulative Effect

a. The copying of the material is for only one course in the school in which the copies are made.
b. Not more than one short poem, article, story, essay, or two excerpts may be copied from the same author, nor more than three from the same collective work or periodical volume during one class term.
c. There shall not be more than nine instances of such multiple copying for one course during one class term.

(The limitations stated in b. and c. above shall not apply to current news periodicals and newspapers and current news sections of other periodicals.)

Please note that we reserve the right to refuse any request for duplication of copyrighted material that is not accompanied by written permission to reproduce from the publisher or owner of the copyright.